Disasters are broadly categorized to: Natural disasters and Man made Disasters. Natural Disasters include Earth Quakes, Floods, River erosion, Cyclones, Tsunami, Forest Fires etc, Man Made Disasters include Nuclear Disaster, Mine Disasters, Chemical Disasters, etc.
Till recently, the approach to Disaster Management has been reactive and relief centric. A paradigm shift has now taken place at the national level from the relief centric syndrome to holistic and integrated approach with emphasis on prevention, mitigation and preparedness. These efforts are aimed to conserve developmental gains as also minimize losses to lives, livelihood and property.
Disaster Management strategy should comprise six elements i.e., Prevention, Mitigation and Preparedness in pre-disaster phase, and Response, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction in post-disaster phase.
POLICY AND GUIDLINES
The National Policy framework on disaster management has been prepared after due deliberations and keeping in view the National Vision ‘to build a safe and disaster-resilient India by developing a holistic, proactive, multi-disaster and technology-driven strategy for disaster management. This will be achieved through a culture of prevention, mitigation and preparedness to generate a prompt and efficient response at the time of disasters. The entire process will centre-stage the community and will be provided momentum and sustenance through the collective efforts of all government agencies and Non-Governmental Organizations’.
In order to translate this Vision into policy and plans, the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) has adopted a mission-mode approach involving a number of initiatives with the help of various institutions operating at national, state and local levels. The central ministries, states and other stakeholders have been involved in the participatory and consultative process of evolving policies and guidelines.
This Policy framework is also in conformity with the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, the Rio Declaration, the Millennium Development Goals and the Hyogo Framework 2005-2015. The themes underpinning this policy are:
Community-based disaster management, including last mile integration of the policy, plans and execution.
Capacity development in all related areas.
Consolidation of past initiatives and best practices.
Cooperation with agencies at national, regional and international levels.
Compliance and coordination to generate a multi-sectoral synergy.
From the national vision and aforementioned theme, the objectives guiding the policy formulation have evolved to include:
Promoting a culture of prevention and preparedness – by centre-staging Disaster Management as an overriding priority at all levels and at all times.
Encouraging mitigation measures based on state-of-the-art technology and environmental sustainability.
Mainstreaming Disaster Management concerns into the development planning process.
Putting in place a streamlined institutional techno-legal framework in order to create and preserve the integrity of an enabling regulatory environment and a compliance regime.
Developing contemporary forecasting and early warning systems backed by responsive and fail-safe communications and Information Technology (IT) support.
Promoting a productive partnership with the Media, NGOs and the Corporate Sector in the areas of awareness generation and capacity development.
Ensuring efficient response and relief with a caring humane approach towards the vulnerable sections of the society.
Making reconstruction an opportunity to build back better and construct disaster-resilient structures and habitats.